Corruption in LebanonAlthough corruption has always existed in Lebanon, its effects were magnified in 1990 after the end of the fifteen-years civil war.Corruption in Lebanon governs all sectors of society and all branches of government.Corruption in Lebanon exists in all its forms including bribery, nepotism, favoritism, patronage, embezzlement, kick-backs, and vote-buying.The causes behind corruption in Lebanon are various and include among others: The lack of awareness on corruption, its causes and consequences; The absence of dysfunctional key anti-corruption institutions; The weak legal framework and the lack of proper legal implementation mechanisms; and The post-war structure in Lebanon, which has led to a power-sharing formula among political and confessional groups resulting in competition for state resources.The impacts of corruption are tremendous and can be classified as political costs rendering fragile the relationship between citizens and the state, financial costs especially in terms of investment and lack of corporate governance, as well as socio-economic costs.An extensive overview on corruption in Lebanon is available in the National Integrity System (NIS) study published by LTA. Measuring Corruption Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)On December 2014, LTA released the results of the 2014 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) in Beirut simultaneously with other parts of the world. Lebanon received the score of 27/100 and was ranked 136th over 175 countries.Open Budget Index LTA participated in the compilation of the 2008 Open Budget Index (OBI) produced by the International Budget Partnership (IBP). Lebanon received a score of 32%, which puts the country in the category of countries that provides minimal information.Governance Matters 2009: The World Bank's Governance Indicators 1996-2008The scores received by Lebanon on the The World Bank's Governance Indicators 1996-2008 published at the end of June 2009, translate very high levels of corruption and bad governance.Over 212 reviewed countries, Lebanon was ranked 146th on the Government's Efficiency indicator, 202nd on the Political Stability indicator, 108th on the Voice and Accountability indicator, and 167th on the Corruption Control indicator.2007 Global Integrity IndexOn the 2007 Global Integrity Index, Lebanon received the score of 45/100 and is considered as a "very weak country" in terms of integrity. The low score of the index are a result of the lack of anti-corruption legislation in the country and absence of key institutions such as an Ombudsman and Anti-Corruption Commission.